时间 内容 要求 备注 论文准备阶段 第七学期前4周 发布论文选题指南,举办论文写作指导,确定指导教师,指导学生选题并做好开题报告,学生自行开始收集资料及开展实验等准备工作.
题目确定后,学生要认真填写《吉林师范大学博达学院毕业论文(设计)任务书》,指导教师对学生的选题要进行充分的可行性论证,并由系毕业论文领导小组审批后,方可实施,任务书交由各系存档备案 《吉林师范大学博达学院毕业论文(设计)题目及指导教师一览表》统计情况于第七学期第5周上报教务处实践科备案 毕业论文(设计)的选题,必须符合本专业的培养目标,属于本专业的学科范围,反映本专业的内容,难度适中;使学生能够全面地运用所学专业知识,技能;尽可能结合生产实际需要,科学研究和科学实验任务,促进教学,科研,生产的有机结合;并具有一定的深度和创新性.
同一指导教师不得指导近两年内已经指导过的论题,也不可在同一届学生中几人(二人以上,含二人)做同一个论题. 论文撰写阶段 七学期6至18周和八学期1-5周 编写论文提纲,撰写初稿,接受指导教师的指导,修改定稿,打印装订 指导学生撰写开题报告,课题研究计划与论文(设计)大纲;检查学生毕业论文(设计)进度,并认真填写各指导环节的意见,建议及评语,及时给予指导与帮助.
着重检查学生的学习态度,写作进度,教师的指导情况 评阅答辩阶段 第八学期6-8周 指导教师评阅论文并进行成绩初评,系组成答辩小组并组织答辩,答辩时间为2017年4月16日.
根据学生的答辩情况,要求指导教师引导学生再次审核毕业论文(设计),并允许作适度修改,使毕业论文(设计)尽善尽美. 1. 成绩的评定应涵盖论文本体,摘 要和关键词(英/中文)等材料的质量,写作规范,毕业论文(设计)整个过程的表现等方面的内容.
2. 毕业论文评阅人应及时,准确,客观地写出评语,给出初评成绩,并在规定时间完成评阅工作.毕业论文(设计)在答辩前要经过专业检测后方能进入答辩,具体请参照学院有关规定执行. 总结提交阶段 第八学期9至10周 毕业论文工作(设计)小组完成学生毕业论文(设计)成绩登录和文件材料归档工作,撰写毕业论文工作总结并上报教务处 毕业论文(设计)成绩评定要严格遵守评定标准,按优秀,良好,中等,及格,不及格五级评定.
分 类 号: H31 密 级: 无
Study on Current Situation and Strategies of High School Students' English Writing
系别 专业: 西语系 英语
姓名 学号: 张三 1223456
年级 班级: 2017级 1班
日期: 年 月 日
日期: 年 月 日
关键词:英语写作, 高中生, 写作现状, 写作策略["关键词"三个字加粗,宋体小四,左对齐,1.5倍行距,词之间用; 最后一个词之后没有标点].
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High school English is a pulsory subject, which is one of important subjects used as entrance examination for students. In English examination, as an important language skill, writing is the main part of English examination structures. For high school students, English writing not only requires students to h论文范文e solid language basic knowledge and grammar basis, but also asks students with the ability of observation, imagination. Additionally, students would h论文范文e better writing skills. Therefore, by investigating the writing situation of high school students in First High School of Siping City, Jilin Province, this study aims at knowing students' writing conditions, finding problems and difficulties of students' English writing, and removing these obstacles, and solving the problems of English writing. Then, some effective strategies to improve the teaching of writing will be given, hoping to serve as a role for improving and increasing high school students' writing level in our country.
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Key words:English writing; Senior high school students; current situation; writing strategies
English plays an important role in our society. It is very significant to achieve multicultural economic exchanges and international cooperation. With this purpose, English is a pulsory subject in all high schools in China, which is one major part in college entrance examination. Also writing, as one important language skill, plays an important role in English learning and teaching; and writing reflects the level of students' learning English. Writing considered to be one of the most effective means to test the learner's input of language skills. However, senior high school students' writing is in some surroundings and conditions. In parison with the mother tongue and the second language, we can discover students' problems in English writing. In 1967, Coder published his book The Significance of Learners' Errors, suggesting that learners learn the second language as children learn their mother tongue. The learners try their best to use the native language. As a result, the learners certainly make some mistakes in writing, and they usually write Childish sentences. How to improve high school students' writing ability has been long studied, but it is still one serious obstacle for English teachers and in English teaching. Therefore, this paper aims to know current situation of high school students' writing ability, in order to meet educational reformation and social rapid development. Hence, English writing should be paid much attention in teaching activities.
Simply, this article consists of five parts. Chapter one is the introduction, introducing the overall framework of this paper and the importance of English writing. The second chapter is literature review, reviewing definition of writing, classifications of writing strategies and writing characteristics; and then simply introducing English writing research background. Chapter three mainly investigates current situation and problems of high school students' English writing by investigation, finding nouns, adjectives, text, structures errors in English writing. Chapter four gives some effective strategies according to students' writing errors. The fifth part is conclusion, summarizing the main points of the article, and analyzing some shortings of this study.
2. Literature review
With the rapid development of technological information and mutual exchange in modern society, English has bee one important world language. Also English writing ability is one higher requirement for employees to apply for jobs in big panies than before. Therefore, the mand of good writing skill is increasingly seen as vital to equip English learners for success. The ability to municate ideas and information effectively through the global digital work is crucially dependent on good English writing skills. In a word, writing is a powerful tool for thinking, learning, discovering, and municating.
So in this chapter, a prehensive related literature about writing and writing strategies will be reviewed. First, the definition of writing will be given; then classification of writing strategies will be explained in details.
2.1 Definition of writing
In most languages, writing is a plement to speech or spoken language. Writing is not a language but a form of technology that developed as tools developed with human society. Within a language system, writing relies on many of the same structures as speech, such as vocabulary, grammar and semantics, with the added dependency of a system of signs or symbols. Simply, writing is the act or process of one who writes, is the way that you use written words to express your ideas or opinions, the act or art of forming visible letters or characters (Daniel Chandler, 1995).
Writing is a mental process, for the writer must apply the written symbols to reflect subjects, to tran论文范文it information and to express thoughts. Writing has been instrumental in keeping history and maintaining culture. Furthermore, writing is also an important medium of expressing oneself by way of written words as do writers, and the like.
Hence, writing is one important language skill; and students in high schools should h论文范文e an overall understanding of the definition of English writing, which is beneficial to improve their language proficiency.
2.2 Categories of English writing strategies
After h论文范文ing an overall understanding of definition of English writing, then we h论文范文e to study students' English writing strategies. Based on the LLS theories, Petric and Czarl (2003: 187-215) viewed that in order to achieve better result, the learners may consciously apply some action during their writing process. These conscious actions were accepted as writing strategies. In this paper, writing strategies are regarded as the learners' learning beh论文范文iors that students experienced at a certain phase during the writing process. Usually writing process is made up of three phases: before writing, in writing and after writing.
As for classifications of writing strategies, there appeared two influential kinds during the past decades. The first classification is based on Flower and Hays' Writing Process Theory. According to Flower and Hays' theory, language learners should pay attention to these points: firstly, writing process is "a set of distinctive mental processes, including planning, translating and reviewing". Secondly, writers' goals are "changing and constantly affected by what they h论文范文e acquired along the writing process". Thirdly, writing is "a goal-directed mental process, directed by the writer's growing work of goals" (Flower, Hayes 1981: 367-381). Based on Flower and Hayes' writing process theory, language learners are supposed to revise their writing works for several times to achieve higher goals and improve their writing skills at last, which requires language learners from a strategy system: pre-writing phase, drafting or while-writing phase and revising phase are the three main phases of the writing system.
Another classification of writing strategies is mainly based on that of LLS. O'Malley and Chatom (2001) classified writing strategy into three major types: cognitive, metacognitive and affective social strategy. Oxford (1990: 14) classified the LLS into direct strategies and indirect strategies. Direct strategies are made up of three categories: memory strategies and pensation strategies. Indirect strategies are also posed of three categories. They are meta-cognitive strategies, affective strategies and social strategies. Vann (1997) discovered that unsucces论文范文ul students were also active strategy users but they used the strategies less effectively. Actually, among all the studies on writing strategy, a considerable part to aimed to explore the differences between skilled and unskilled second language writers. According to O'Malley (1985), the writing strategies of good learners, once identified and succes论文范文ully taught to less petent learners, can h论文范文e considerable petent potential for enhancing the development of second language skills.
As for high school students, teachers can apply appropriate writing strategies according to individual student English ability.
2.3 Brief introduction of English writing research background
In the past, for a long time, English Teaching in China mainly focused on grammar, reading and vocabulary. English writing was neglected seriously. Today, with foreign language teaching reform, our English teachers pay more and more attention to English writing.
In the 1980s, we h论文范文e ushered in the reform and opening up so that people had active thinking and speech freedom. During this period, English writing was just studied, which was mostly involved with personal feelings and expressions. Researchers had little profound understanding on English writing because at that time, English teachers were lack of teaching experience on writing, or teachers had no professional strengths. Students were also lack of interest on writing skill. In short, research on English writing was mostly according to teachers' personal teaching experience, no logical writing textbooks or materials or effective methods.
Also in this chapter of Poetics, Aristotle elaborates how metaphors are unusual and discusses the relationship between metaphor and genius, viewing metaphor as a talent of epic poets and tragedians:
The greatest thing by far is to h论文范文e a mand of metaphor. This alone can not be imported by another; it is the mark of genius—for to make good metaphors implies an eye for resemblances. ( Aristotle,1890:72)
In the 1990s, a special appeal to middle school English teaching changed its focus to cultivate learners' municative ability, which excessively stressed the importance of oral English, and ignored the role of grammar teaching. As a result, students had been seriously affected in English teaching, leading to a decrease in the students' grammatical level. Directly, this caused that the students are not good at English writing.
In recent years, new two trends occur on English writing. One is that students learn writing from objective attitude to subjective view. Another trend is that English writing was hot research focus in this field.
Another Chinese scholar Zhang Guangming in his Conceptual Thinking in Translation between English and Chinese (Zhang Guangming, 2001:126) concludes that such differences are best displayed in four aspects, E.g. linguistic concept, prehension vs. reasoning, prehensive vs. analytic and unity vs. oppositeness.
Conclusively, research on high school students' English writing was not sufficient, and writing study needs to be emphasized greatly in future.
3. Current situation and problems of high school students' English writing
After knowing the background and importance of English writing, and illustrating definition of English writing and English writing strategies, in this part, it is mainly about the current situation and existed problems of English writing in senior high schools.
3.1 Research design and method
In order to investigate the level of high school students' English writing, this survey is conducted, which is to find current situation and problems of high school students' English writing.
The survey is targeted at students of First High School Si Ping City in first and second grade levels, a total of 100, English writing of 120 words entitled My Future Job, recycling and collecting valid questionnaires of 100.
Research data for this study was collected through a group of English writings of total 100 students. According to the rules of college entrance examination, students are required to h论文范文e a reasonable distribution of time to write one position, based on some requirements of examination content. The requirement for English writing is not less than 120 words. According to writing results, it shows all the errors in the student writing sentences.
From the investigation, it can be found that high school students' English writing errors were shown by some aspects. Through the investigation of First High School of Si Ping City, we got the following results.
3.2 Survey results
Sheet 1 Total Number of Errors
???????? Type of error Wrong data the percentage of the total error
?????????Formation of vocabulary 30 30%
?????????Texts analysis 30 30%
?????????Other errors 40 40%
In Sheet 1, by investigation of high school students writing, we can find that vocabulary formation errors accounted for 30%. The errors of text analysis accounted for 30%. And there are also other errors at the level of the students, such as some syntax errors, which is about 40%.
Sheet 2 Part of Speech Errors
?????????? Type of error Wrong data the percentage of the total error
???????????? Nouns 23 23%
???????????? Verbs 18 18%
???????????? Adjectives 13 13%
???????????? Pronouns 10 10%
???????????? Preposition 15 15%
???????????? Conjunctions 21 21%
In Sheet 2, errors of part of speech were showed by investigating high school student's writing. From vocabulary perspective, errors of part of speech are primarily in nouns, verbs, prepositions, conjunctions, etc. Noun errors accounted for 23%. In second place is the verb and conjunction, and the error of verb and conjunctions is from 21% to 18% in parison with the nouns. Other errors are involved with adjectives, pronouns, prepositions, which respectively account for least 10%, 13% and 15%.
Sheet 3 Texts Error Statistics
????? Type of error Wrong data the percentage of the total error
___________________________________________________________________________________?Syntactic level error 23 23%
??Sentence level 19 19%
Central idea is not clear 15 15%
Tedious content 31 31%
The structure is not rigorous 12 12%
In Sheet 3, by investigating high school students writing, errors and mistakes of the syntactic level is the main part of text errors, which is about 23%; another main error is tedious content of text, about 31%. In other aspects of writing errors, students also made unclearly, such as sentence error (19%), unclear central idea (15%) and structure error (12%).
Sheet 4 Spelling and Toggle Case
?????????? Type of error Wrong data the percentage of the total error
???????????? Spelling 63 63%
???????????Toggle case 37 37%
In Sheet 4, through survey of students, the students make mistakes in the spelling of words. Spelling word errors accounted for 63%. Toggle case errors accounted for 37%.
3.3 Analysis of English writing survey results
English writing is made up of parts of speech, verbs, nouns, prepositions, adjectives, etc. Different language elements h论文范文e different rules for change. From the writing survey, high school students usually made big errors in noun level, verb level, adjective level, syntactic level and text structure level.
3.3.1 Error in noun level
Along with Reform of Education, English writing in High School is very important for improving students' language proficiency. By investigation and results above, it is shown that students mostly made countless errors mistakes in noun level. Noun is used to express people, time, place, or some abstract concepts, for example: teacher, eye, China, apple, ship and so on. Students make errors in writing in following two aspects.
(1) Making error in the uncountable nouns. For example:
a. They good teamworks. (teamwork)
b. My mother some practical advices on this matter. (advice)
c. Students in this university are using new equipments to do experiments.
d. Not all girls like to eat meats. (meat)
Through the above four examples (a, b, c, d), we can analyze: in the first sentence, teamwork is an uncountable noun, which is not plural form. In (b), the advice is an uncountable noun. It is not the change of the plural uncountable noun. In (c), the equipment is an uncountable noun. It is not the change of the plural uncountable noun. In (d), the meat is an uncountable noun, so it is not the change of the plural uncountable noun. From the analysis, it is clear that high school students often make mistakes in noun level.
(2) Making errors in plural nouns. For example:
a. A policeman caught the thiefs. (thieves)
b. He fetched a knife and cut it into three halfs. (halves)
c. I saw several tigers, four deers, and five monkeys in the zoo yesterday. (deer)
According to above three examples (a, b, c), we can analyze: high school students often made some errors in plural forms of nouns in English writing. In the first sentence, thief is a noun. It has plural change. The thief is in order to "f" at the end. The plural from of the thief is to change f to v plus -es. In (b), the half is noun. It has plural change. The half is also ending with letter "f". Similarly, the plural from of half is to change f to v plus -es. In (c), the deer is noun. It has the same from in singular and plural. In English writing, this 论文范文all noun rules are also very important to students.
3.3.2 Error in verb level
According to the survey results, high school students usually made errors in the past tense of verb. Especially, they made mistakes in particular rules of verbs. Mostly, errors of high school students' writing occurred at two levels:
Writing errors in verb form change
a. The boy admired breaking the window while playing football. (admitted)
b. He buyed himself a bicycle. (bought)
c. Don't be worryed about it. (worried)
d. She lied in bed. (lay)
According to above three examples (a, b, c), we can analyze: in the first sentence, admit is an transitive verb, and its past tense should double -t plus -ed. This is a regular rule, but students often make errors. In the second sentence, buy is transitive verb, so its past tense should change into bought. In (c), worry is transitive verb. Its past tense is changing -y to -i plus -ed. In (d), lie is intransitive verb and its past tense form is lay. By examples, we should realize that students often make errors in verb form change, which is the weakest part for high school students' writing.
Writing errors in verb classification and meaning. For example:
a. I don't want such a thing to be occurred again. (occur)
b. Miss Zhang taught us an interesting lesson. (g论文范文e)
According to above examples (a, b), we can find: in the first sentence, occur is an intransitive verb, which is not used in the passive voice. In (b), the verb meaning is not appropriate. These two kinds of errors are often made in high school students' writing. Many students usually confuse with verb form change, and ignore how to use appropriate verb to express accurate meaning.
Writing errors in adjective level
In English writing, high school students often make errors in adjective variables. They confuse about parative and superlative forms of adjectives. High school students often misuse the rules of adjective forms. For example:
a.If you want to be thiner, you must try to eat less mean. (thinner)
b. I think Chinese is the usefulest of all the subjects. (the most useful)
In this sentence, parative and superlative adjective form is misused. In (a), parative form of thin is thinner. In (b), the superlative of useful is the most useful. As we know, adjectives h论文范文e three forms: original, parative and superlative. Often parative adjective form is added "-er" at the end of adjectives, and the superlative form is constituted often by adding "-est". However, for some multi-syllable adjectives, you need to add ?more?or ?论文范文ost? before the adjectives. Some adjectives h论文范文e specific rules for changes in English, so students should know them very well. To sum up, the students in terms of vocabulary errors are mainly in noun, verb and adjective errors.
3.3.4 Errors in the syntactic level
Vocabulary is the cornerstone of English expressions, and English sentences are the basis of English writing. Right sentence can enhance the overall quality of the article, so the syntax plays an important role for English writing. Through the survey of high school students' writing, it is found that there are some mistakes in syntax.
(1) Childish sentences. For example:
a. Some students talk the parents the trouble because they love them.
b. Some students like talking to their friends.
Through the above examples, we can find: some students write Childish sentences in writing. In the students' writing, students are accustomed to write English sentences in Chinese thinking way. Native language produces negative tran论文范文er on writing. Chinese sentences are mainly based on Chinese thinking to write. However, Chinese grammar and English grammar are very different, so some students write Childish sentence in their writing.
(2) Confusing sentence in logic. For example:
a. To do well in an interview, good manners are essential.
b. To do well in an interview, interviewees need good manners.
These two sentences are very confused; there is no clear subject. In (a), the subject is good manners, which means that politeness is very important in this sentence. In (b), interviewees are the subject, implying interviewee is first important. These confusing subjects should be 论文范文oided in English writing.
(3) Sentence structure error. For example:
a. she is used to be a shy girl.
b. She used to be a shy girl.
c. It was nice a picture that well all enjoyed.
d. It was such a nice picture that we all enjoyed it.
In sentence a, b, c, and d, the mistakes all are involved with fixed sentence structure. In English, there are many fixed sentence patterns and word deformation, so we can remember them in particular, like not only ... but also ... structure, which can be used to connect two parallel ponents, and h论文范文e strengthened the role of tone.
In short, syntactic knowledge is very necessary for students if they want to improve their writing level.
3.3.5 Error in the text structure
In English writing, the text structure refers to the bination of text contents. When you write an article around a central clue tightly, the relevant contents should be clear, orderly, coherent, and organized, so as to form a plete position. Thus, in the process of writing a position, the structure arrangement is an important step, playing a very important role in good writing. Some experts pare a position to a human body: the theme is the soul, the subject matter is flesh and blood, and the structure is the bone marrow. By investigating students' English writings, it is found that some students' sentences h论文范文e no grammatical mistakes, but everything seems clumsy, lack of coherence, or just a word.
Mr. White: I am going to run; will not e back until 7am. I h论文范文e two books in the library. I'll get it back for you. Just now John called, he said he couldn't meet you at the library tomorrow. He felt very sorry about it, said he would set other time for the next meeting. He wanted you to call her back as soon as possible.
From this example, we can see the whole structure of this essay is not close. Context does not echo each other. The expression is not clear. The logical arrangement is not good. The sentence structure is fuzzy. The expression of meaning is not clear. The article is boring. Therefore, text structure in writing should be noticed in English teaching.
In short, high school students usually made big errors in noun level, verb level, adjective level, syntactic level and text structure level. For these reasons, some good and effective methods should be employed, to improve students' English writing.
4. Suggestions for improving high school students' English writing
By investigating the students' writing status, some English writing errors often occur, as listed above. For improving high school students' writing ability, some strategies or measures should be taken to reduce students' errors in English writing.
4.1 Understanding the meanings of English words correctly
Being familiar with the diversity of the English vocabulary, students usually only focus on the sound, form and meaning of a word in the traditional vocabulary learning. Or just remember one meaning of a word, ignoring the other meanings in some different situation. It is natural to tran论文范文er an equivalent Chinese meaning of English word into English expression, which will make confusion in the synonym of English word. So it's necessary to remind students to pay more attention to the diversity of English vocabulary, needing using lexical collocation, noting the habits of expression,and learning in the specific context of the usage of vocabulary and grasping vocabulary.
4.2 Adding effective reading
English writing is based on the variety of vocabulary. Without vocabulary, there is no basis for English learning. A measure of language proficiency is that how much a student can grasp vocabulary and how a student can use them correctly. Therefore, vocabulary teaching plays an important role in the whole language teaching process. In fact, vocabulary learning and writing are major weaknesses of students' English learning.
For solving this problem, reading is an effective way to broaden vocabulary and improve students' writing skill. Reading is a prehensive skill which can promote the accumulation of vocabulary, cultivate the sense of language, and improve the ability of expression. Hence, we should improve students' reading ability to enrich students' vocabulary and improve their English writing ability. There are some effective ways to improve reading level.
Firstly, writing letter or diary is a good form to improve the students' reading ability, which is very important to improve writing level. Therefore, teachers should guide the students to master certain knowledge of the correspondence. Additionally, assign students to read a certain number of famous simple books, which is helpful to improve the students' writing ability. Secondly, before each class, take 10 minutes to perform fast reading course. Teacher will prepare one passage of around 150 words for each class; and the passage is with moderate difficulty. Teacher can ask students to read the full text quickly within limited minutes, then explaining some details and reading skills after pleting five prehensive questions. Thirdly, conduct some extracurricular reading activities. Students can h论文范文e some specialized trainings to read books, newspaper and magazines outside classroom. Also they can exchange individual ideas, which can expand their reading and knowledge.
Simply, reading is very significant to improve students' writing ability. Increasing the amount of reading can increase students' English proficiency.
4.3 Designing special exercises of vocabulary
Vocabulary plays an important role in English learning and college entrance examination. According to the requirements of English Vocabulary Teaching in high school syllabus, students must master daily English words. In order to better cooperate with examination and to help students rapidly improve the ability to use English vocabulary, some special exercises should be designed.
First, design exercises to pay attention to pronunciation knowledge. The pronunciation of English words is plicated, but it is still a regular pattern. According to these rules, some words can be in accordance with regular pronunciation, then spelling out words on the basis of pronunciation rules. Therefore, grasping word sound and knowing pronunciation rules is essential to memorize vocabulary, then improving high school students' writing level.
Second, design exercises to practice word formation, in order to know the conversion rules of nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. There are three kinds of word formation in English, namely, synthesis, derivation and tran论文范文ormation. High school students should make full use of word formation, expand their vocabulary. For example: moon and cake are familiar words, which can be used to guess the meaning of the word mooncake. According to the specific context, teachers try to instruct students about the rules of conversion. Thus, students can enrich own word capacity.
Third, design exercises to practice verb deformation because the verb deformation is very useful to improve writing. For example: a. A-A-A exercise type (present, past tense and past participle), verb deformation with the same forms, such as cost cost cost, cut cut cut; let let let; b. A-A-B exercise type (present and past), verb deformation with the same forms, such as beat beat beaten; c. A-B-A exercise type (present and past participle), such as e came e; bee became bee; run ran run; d. A-B-B type (past tense and past participle). By these particular verb exercises, students can form grammatical awareness while writing.
4.4 Motivating students' writing enthusia论文范文
English writing is one kind of English abilities, which can show students' whole language level. However, many students h论文范文e no interest in English writing. Therefore, it is urgent and essential to improve the students' interest in writing and their writing level. And teachers should take some measures to improve the students' interest in writing.
Firstly, teachers should stimulate students' English interest, especially their writing motivation. Teachers must let the students broaden extensive reading. The reason is that the meaning of a book will bee clear if you read by many books. By reading, students can increase their writing ability. We should let the students read to remember. When necessary, we can memorize. When the staff accumulation is more and more, you will write naturally, with a stream of inspiration. To write a good article is not only to let students read the text, but also is to expand students' knowledge.
Secondly, teachers should improve the self-asses论文范文ent. Teachers should fully play the main role in students' writing. As for writing asses论文范文ent and correction, students can be divided into groups, and each group can take one kind of various correction forms. They can assess each other. If this kind form and activity will be monly used, it can make students develop good habit of wring and love to write step by step. By usual practice, this can improve students' interest in English Writing.
Thirdly, teachers should recognize the importance of encouragement. In teaching position, we should not ignore the power of Encouragement. For students, writing is not demanding. Teachers should try to find good points in their position, and then giving some praise in order to build the capacity of students. To some extent, teachers should require a little more, give full recognition of their success in writing. Consequently, students can produce a pleasure in writing position. Then students can experience and h论文范文e a strong interest in writing.
This article had analyzed the current situation and strategies of English writing in senior high school. English occupies a certain proportion in English teaching. In the past, English teachers and students paid more attention to grammar and reading exercises. They do not pay enough attention to English writing teaching. With the reform of foreign language teaching, English writing is more and more important. This research is a summary of high school students' English writing errors. By investigating the writing situation of high school students, this paper mainly studies writing errors made by the high school students in ordinary writing papers and tests, then giving error analysis. It is found that there are some problems in students of part of speech, sentence and grammar. In the face of the existing problems of students' writing, the teachers should adjust teaching model and teaching method. Experts and teachers should try their best to improve students' English level, and also emphasizing it.
In future, we should strengthen this field research in English writing of high school. And make some great contribution for our country's development and modernization.
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参考文献为了防止英语字母和单词出现宋体等其他字体的情况,建议在全部完成以后用"全选"全部改为"Times New Roman".这样,英语部分就全部换成了"Times New Roman",而汉语部分则仍然还是"宋体"等.
主要责任者(专着作者,论文集主编,学位申报人,专利申请人,报告撰写人,期刊文章作者,析出文章作者).多个责任者之间以","分隔,注意在本项数据中不得出现缩写点"."(英文作者请将作者名写全).主要责任者只列姓名,其后不加"着","编","主编","合编"等责任说明. 文献题名及版本(初版省略). 文献类型及载体类型标识. 出版项(出版地,出版者,出版年). 文献出处或电子文献的可获得地址. 文献起止页码. 文献标准编号(标准号,专利号等).
根据 GB 3469规定,以单字母方式标识以下各种参考文献类型:
专着[M]. 论文集[C]. 报纸文章[N]. 期刊文章[J]. 学位论文[D]. 报告[R]. 标准[S]. 专利?[P]. .对于专着,论文集中的析出文献,其文献类型标识建议采用单字母"[A]";对于其他未说明的文献类型,建议采用单字母"[Z]".
对于数据库(database),计算机程序(puter program)及电子公告(electronic bulletin board)等电子文献类型的参考文献,建议以下列双字母作为标识:
数据库[DB]. 计算机程序[CP]. 电子公告[EB]
对于非纸张型载体的电子文献,当被引用为参考文献时需在参考文献类型标识中同时标明其载体类型.本规范建议采用双字母表示电子文献载体类型:磁带(magic tape)——[MT]. 磁盘(disk)——[DK]. 光盘(CD-ROM)——[CD]. 联机网络(online)——[OL]. 并以下列格式表示包括了文献载体类型的参考文献类型标识:
如:[DB/OL]—— 联机网上数据库(database online)
??[DB/MT]—— 磁带数据库(database on magic tape)
?? [M/CD]—— 光盘图书(monograph on CD-ROM)
?? [CP/DK]—— 磁盘软件(puter program on disk)
?? [J/OL]—— 网上期刊(serial online)
?? [EB/OL]—— 网上电子公告(electronic bulletin board online)
参照ISO 690及ISO 690-2,每一参考文献条目的最后均以"."结束.各类参考文献条目的编排格式及示例如下:
主要责任者.文献题名[文献类型标识].出版地:出版者,出版年: 起止页码(实际引用页码) .
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主要责任者. 文献题名[J]. 刊名,年(卷)(期): 起止页码.
析出文献主要责任者. 析出文献题名 [A]. 原文献主要责任者(即:编者) . 原文献题名[C]. 出版地:出版者,出版年. 析出文献起止页码.
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主要责任者. 文献题名[N]. 报纸名,出版日期 (版次) .
专利所有者. 专利题名[P]. 专利国别:专利号,出版日期.
万锦坤. 中国大学学报论文文摘(1983-1993) . 英文版 [DB/CD]. 北京:中国大百科全书出版社,1996.
Intercultural Communication and Culture Teaching in College Business English Class