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标题下面 作者名字论文范文 pdf修改标题作者论文文献资料

《惠州学院外语系英语专业毕业论文写作规范》概括:此文是一篇作者标题论文范文,为你的毕业论文写作提供有价值的参考。

惠州学院外语系英语专业毕业论文写作规范

   2017年11月修订稿

   PART ONE 写作指南

   一,毕业论文写作要求

   (1) Requirements of Theses

   A. The thesis shall represent part of the knowledge the student has acquired during the 4 years of study and must be partly original. The originality shall be shown either by the discovery of new facts or by independent judgments.

   B. The thesis shall contain the student's own account of his/her research.

   C. The thesis shall be not less than 4,000 words and not more than 5,000 words in English.

   D. Pure translation is not acceptable while ments on translation are encouraged.

   论文要求:

   A,论文应与本系专业有关;

   B,独立完成;

   C,4000-5000字;

   D,毕业论文可以是翻译评论,3000字左右.但不接受单纯的翻译文本.

   (2) Format of the Thesis论文结构

   A. The cover page (provided by the university) with the title of the thesis in both English and Chinese, full name of the student, full name of the supervisor, and the date of submission.

   B. Statement of student contribution.

   C. The abstract (400-500 words, in both English and Chinese).

   D. Key words in English and Chinese (3-5 words just below the abstract).

   E. The table of contents.

   F. The main text.

   G. List of references following the FLS Format.

   H. Appendices (possible but not required).

   I. Acknowledgement.

   J. Penalty for Plagiari论文范文:If a student submits a dissertation which is partly or wholly a product of plagiari论文范文, he will be given an"F"score.

   毕业论文规格及要求:所有毕业论文一律用计算机打印.论文用A4纸印刷.

   1. 论文结构(按前后顺序)包括:中英文主标题,原创声明,中英文论文摘 要 (按中文计算约400 - 500字,并在摘 要下面列出关键词), 目录,正文,参考文献,致谢(具体请参照范本);

   2. 所引的数据和观点应在注释中标明具体出处;

   3. 要求在参考文献中有一定的外文文献;

   4. 严禁任何抄袭或复制他人论文的论文范文行为,违者记为不及格,并按课程考试论文范文处理.

   (3) Grading system评分等级

   Grade Standard Grade Points 优秀

   良好

   中等

   及格

   不及格 Excellent

   Good

   Fair

   Pass

   Failure 90 and above

   80-89

   70-79

   60-69

   59 and below

   (4) Oral Defense

   Oral defense shall be held in the eighth semester. All teachers are supposed to take part in this academic activity.

   论文答辩:第八学期举行,全体教师参加.

   (5) Objectives for the Oral Defense答辩目的

   A. To verify the authenticity of the writing.

   B. To check the oral presentation of the students.

   C. To double check and balance the grades given by the supervisor.

   检查论文的可信程度,学生的口头表述能力,评分是否合理.

   (6) Procedures for the Oral Defense答辩程序

   A. 15-20 min. altogether for each student.

   B. 3-5 min. of a summary of the thesis by the student.

   C. 10-15 min. for the questions and answers.

   每场答辩15-20分钟;学生讲论文摘 要3-5分钟;提问与回答10-15分钟.

   二,摘 要写作的关键字眼

   B等于 some background information (a general introduction)

   P等于 purpose and the principle activity (usually a specific problem)

   M等于 the main information about the methodology used

   R等于 the most important results of the study

   C等于 a statement about your conclusion or the (kind of) closing remendation(s) you make.

   三,注释及参考文献格式要求

   (说明:本格式参阅了MLA,CMS和《外语教学与研究》的格式,部分例子源于其他学术刊物.)

   (一)毕业论文的注释采用夹注,不采用脚注.某些引文或所依据的文献无需详细注释者,以夹注的形式随文在括弧内注明.

   In-text citations are used in graduation theses. The citations are placed in parentheses () within the text.

   来自专着的直接引语,作者姓名在文中已经出现

   Direct quotations from a book, author's name in text

   格式:出版年份:页码.

   Format: Year: page number(s).

   Example:

   Rees said, "As key aspects of learning are not stable, but changeable, this opens the way for the role of the teacher as the pre-eminent mediator in the process"(1986: 241).

   来自专着的直接引语,作者姓名在文中没有出现

   Direct quotations from a book, author's name NOT in text

   格式:作者姓名,出版年份:页码.

   Format: Author's last name, year: page number(s).

   Example:

   "One reason perhaps is that the Chinese audience is more familiar with and receptive to Western culture than the 论文范文erage English reader is to Chinese culture." (Fung ,1995: 71).

   C. 来自某篇文章的直接引语,作者姓名在文中已经出现 Direct quotations from an article, author's name in text

   格式:发表年份

   Format: Year

   Example:

   Ernst Rose submits,"The highly spiritual view of the world presented in Siddartha exercised its appeal on West and East alike." (1974)

   D. 来自某篇文章的直接引语,作者姓名在文中没有出现 Direct quotations from an article, author's name NOT in text

   格式:作者姓名(英文只注姓),出版年份.

   Format: Author's last name, year.

   Example:

   "Everything rests on the notion that there is such a thing as 'just' words – but there isn't." (Bateson 1972)

   E. 来自专着的间接引语,作者的姓名在文中已经提到

   Indirect quotations from a book, author's name in text

   格式:出版年份:引文页码.

   Format: Year: page number(s).

   Example:

   According to Alun Rees (1986: 234), the writers focus on the unique contribution that each individual learner brings to the learning situation.

   F. 来自专着的间接引语,作者的姓名在文中没有提到

   Indirect quotations from a book, author's name NOT in text

   格式:作者姓名,出版年:引文页码.

   Format: Author's last name, Year: page number(s).

   Example:

   It may be true that in the appreciation of medieval art the attitude of the observer is of primary importance. (see Robertson 1987: 136)

   Note: If the stating theory can be directly found in the original text, declare the source by (see Robertson 1987: 136); if the stating theory can only partly be found in the original text, declare the source by (c.f. Robertson 1987: 136)

   G. 来自文章的间接引语,作者的姓名在文中没有提到

   Indirect quotations from an article, author's name NOT in text

   格式:作者姓名,出版年份.

   Format: Author's last name, Year: Examples:

   Example:

   It is argued that if munication is to be succes论文范文ul, the people involved need to share the same referential meaning of the words they are using (Byron & Fleming 1999)

   H.提到某人的观点与姓名

   Reference of author's name and opinion(s) in text

   格式:发表年份(紧跟姓名后)

   Format: Year(following the author's last name).

   Example:

   Fries (1981) attempted to provide evidence that Theme is a meaningful concept by showing a number of short texts.

   提到某人的观点(没有提到姓名)

   Reference of author's opinion(s), name NOT in text

   格式:作者姓名,发表年份

   Format: Author's last name, Year.

   Example:

   The writers focus on the unique contribution that each individual learner brings to the learning situation (Rees 1986: 32).

   J.正文引文中涉及到中国作者有两种情况:1)在参考文献中,如果用英文表述中国作者及着作,Shen, Dan. Stylistics and Translation. Beijing: Peking UP, 1995. 那么在正文中,引用原作者话之后要这样在括号里标注, 例如,Professor Shen writes that the standard of faithfulness and accuracy is not only "a principle for translating business contracts, but an attitude in translation" (Shen 191). (引文标注用汉语拼音).2)在参考文献中,如果用汉语表述中国作者及着作,袁振国. 《当代教育学》. 北京:教育科学出版社,2002. 那么在正文中,引用原作者话之后要这样在括号里标注, 例如,Educator Yuan states that the Social Educational Model was first proposed by Gardner and his colleagues in early 1970's and reformulated in 1985 (袁振国 116).(引文标注用汉语方块字).(此处引文为间接引文,故没有双引号).

   (二)参考文献 References

   1 专着 Books

   格式:作者的姓名,书名,出版地,出版商和出版年份.

   Format: Author's last name, given name. Title. Place of publication: Publisher. Year of publication.

   独立作者 A Book by a Single Author

   Example:

   王力,《音韵学初步》.北京:商务印书馆,1980.

   Fairbanks, Carol. Prairie Women: Images in American and Canadian Fiction. New H论文范文en: Yale UP, 1986.

   同一作者两本以上的参考书

   Two or More books by the Same Author

   Examples:

   黄国文,《语篇分析概要》.长沙:湖南教育出版社,1988.

   黄国文,《英语语言问题研究》.广州:中山大学出版社,1999.

   Hirsch, D论文范文id. Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know. Boston: Houghton, 1987.

   Hirsch, D论文范文id. The Philosophy of Composition, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977.

   C. 同一作者两本以上同年出版的参考书

   Two or More books by the Same Author in the Same Year

   Examples:

   周兆祥,《翻译与人生》.香港:商务印书馆,1996a.

   周兆祥,《翻译初阶》.香港:商务印书馆,1996b.

   Newmark, Peter. Approaches to Translation. London:Prentice Hall International Ltd., 1988a.

   Newmark, Peter. A Textbook of Translation. London: Prentice Hall International Ltd., 1988b.

   D. 同一本书有两,三位作者

   A Book by Two or Three Authors

   Example:

   金圣华,黄国彬,《因难见巧--名家翻译经验谈》.香港:三联书店有限公司,1996.

   E. 同一本书有四位或更多作者 More than Three Authors

   Example:

   张三,李四等,《语言杂谈》.香港:博益出版有限公司,1978.

   Edens, Walter,et al.. Teaching Shakespeare, Princeton:Princeton University Press, 1997.

   F. 书的主编 A Book with an Editor

   Examples:

   杨自俭,李瑞华主编,《英汉对比研究论文集》.上海外语出版社,1990.

   Hall, D论文范文id. ed. The Oxford Book of American Literary Anecdotes. New York: OUP, 1981.

   G. 机构作者 A Book by a Corporate Author

   Example:

   高等学校外语学刊研究会,《外国语言研究论文索引》(1990-1994).上海:上海外语教育出版社,1996.

   H. 无作者署名的书 An Anonymous Book

   Example:

   《现代汉语词典》.北京:商务印书馆,1992.

   一书多册 A Multi-volume Book

   Examples:

   张道真,《现代英语用法词典》(5册).上海译文出版社,1983.

   Blotner, Johnson. Faulkner:Abiography (2vols.).NewYork: Random,1974.

   J. 翻译着作 A Translation

   Examples:

   赵元任,《中国话的文法》(丁邦新译).香港中文大学出版社,1986.

   Calvino, Ian. The Uses of Literature. (P.Creagh,Trans.) San Diego: Harcourt,1986.

   K. 政府文件 A Government Document

   Example:

   《中华人民共和国香港特别行政区基本法》.香港:三联书店有限公司,1991.

   2. 文章 Articles

   格式:作者姓名,篇名,刊名,刊物的卷号和期号,年份,文章的起止页码.

   Format: Author's last name, given name. Article Title. Journal Title, Volume number(Issue/Issue number), year:page number.

   L. 期刊文章 Periodical Articles

   Example:

   陈渊,国外英语教材初探,《外国语》,1979. 1: 66-68.

   Fulwiler, T. How well does writing across teaching work? College English 46, 1984: 13-25.

   M. 论文集的文章

   An Article in an Anthology or the Published Proceedings of a conference

   Example:

   张美芳,翻译学--关系繁多的综合性学科.黄国文主编,《语文研究群言集》.广州:中山大学出版社,1997:308-318.

   Peters, M. & Stephen, T. B. Interaction Routines as Cultural Influences upon Language Acquisition. In Schieffelin, B.B. & Ochs, E. eds. Language Socialization Across Cultures. Cambridge: CUP, 1986: 80-96.

   N. 报纸署名文章 A Signed Article in a Daily Newspaper

   Example:

   吴天,外来语与我国文化的冲突.《牛城日报》10月23日,2000:5.

   Darst, James. Environmentalists want hotels, concessions removed from US parks. Boston Globe, May 25, 1988: 17.

   O. 工具书署名文章 A Signed Article in a Reference Book

   Example:

   南文,联合国的口述录音翻译.《中国翻译词典》1997年版.

   Tobias, Richard. & Thurber, James. Encyclopedia Americana. 1987 ed.

   P. 工具书非署名文章

   An Unsigned Article in a Reference Book

   Example:

   Tharp, Twyla. Who's Who of American Women. 15th ed. 1987-88.

   Q. 社论 An Editorial

   Example:

   大力加强金融系统思想政治工作--纪念中国论文范文诞生79周年.《金融时报》7月1日社论,2000:1.

   Young, Gifted, Black-and Inspired.Editorial.Washington Post, May 18, 1988: 20.

   3. 非文字材料 Non-print

   R. 电脑软件 Computer Software

   格式:制作人姓名,软件名(说明是电脑软件),型号,年份.

   Format: Computer programmer's last name, given name. Title

   (Computer software). Model number, year.

   Example:

   Rosenberg, Victor, et al. Pro-Cite. Vers.1.3. (Computer software).IBM PCDOC 2.0, 256KB, disk, 1987.

   T. 电影,电视,广播,幻灯,录像,录音,艺术品

   Films, TV and Radio Programs, Slides, Videotapes, Audiotapes and Art Works.

   格式:片名(或节目名),导演(或制作者)姓名,出品地(或播出台和播出地),年份(或播出日期).

   Format: Name of film. Director's last name, given name. Place of production, year (or date of showing).

   Examples:

   《我的父亲母亲》(电影),张艺谋(导演).北京,1998.

   The Last Empero r(Film). Bertolucci, Bernardo (Director). With J. Lone & Po'Toole. Columbia, 1987.

   If God Ever Listened: A Portrait of Alice Walker. Horizons (Radio program). Rosenthal, Jane(Producer). NPR. WBST, Muncie. 3 Mar. 1984.

   U. 网上文献的格式:

   主要责任者. 题名:其他题名信息. 出版地:出版者,出版年(更新或修改日期) [引用日期].获取和访问路径(联机文献必备).

   He, Gang. Grammaticalization: Construction and slot. Guangzhou: CPrA. 2003 [2017-10-29]. pragmaticschina./grammaticalization.htm.

   汤富华,母语语感涵义与二语语感涵义的区分[EB/OL].(2004-11-15)[2017-08-05].eng.hzu.edu./yugan/.?

   V 采用着者-出版年制组织参考文献(即夹注)时,采用悬挂格式,悬挂缩进2个汉字符.同时有中英文参考文献时,英文文献在前,按首字母排列;中文文献在后,按拼音首字母顺序排序(见下文具体格式范本第25-26页).

   (三)翻译类科研论文写作规范

   1. 中文名字:先写拼音,随后写中文

   e.g. Yan Fu 严复

   2.. 关键词语:翻译后,紧跟原中文词语.表达方式有以下几种.

   1) In the 1960s, Qian Zhongshu钱钟书explained his idea of "sublimation" 化境 as "the tran论文范文igration of souls."

   2) The poem is a lüshi律诗, a poem of eight line with seven characters to each line.

   3) D论文范文is concentrated on the "golden age" of what proves to be one particular tradition of classical Chinese poetry --- shi 诗 and especially lüshi律诗 "regulated poetry" --- which matured and flourished under the Tang dynasty (618-906).

  

   3.汉语引文:先写英语翻译且用引号,随后紧跟中文原文但不用引号.

   The first exploration in this direction can be found in Zhi Qian's 支谦 writing in which he quoted Lao Zi's (Lao-Tzu) 老子maxim that "beautiful words are not faithful, and faithful words not beautifu" 美言不信,信言不美, the time-honoured aesthetic controversy of "beauty vs. truth".

   如果引语独立成段,则不用引号;如果译者是他人,译文后面要标识译者(trans. by Yan Waiping).

   Qu Qiubai 瞿秋白 made a answer to Lu Xun in blunt words:

  

   Translation can indeed helps us create new words, new sentence structures, a rich vocabulary, and subtle, precise and correct ways of expressing ourselves. Since we are engaged in the struggle for a new modern Chinese language, we cannot but set two standards for translation: absolute accuracy and absolute vernacular Chinese. This is to introduce the language of a new culture to the masses. (trans. By Yan Waiping)

   翻译,的确可以帮助我们造出许多新的字眼,新的句法,丰富的词汇和细腻的精密的正确的表现.因此我们既然进行着创造中国现代的新的言语的斗争,我们对于翻译,就不能够不要求:绝对的正确和绝对的中国白话文.这是要把新的文化的言语介绍给大众.(3)

   4. 文章名或书名: 汉语的单独出版物用双书名号;汉语的非单独出版物用单书名号(包括诗歌名,散文等).英语的单独出版物用下划线;英语的非单独出版物用引号.

   1) For instance, the title of a Chinese book like chunzai caotang shu 《春在草堂书》(The Complete Works of Yu Yue 俞樾), to me defies translation. It draws upon his famous line: 花落春常在 ( "Though

标题下面 作者名字:降B大调赋格曲 op.6 标题:“俄国风格——革命” 作者:王新煜

flowers h论文范文e fallen, spring is still with us"). We can translate The Complete Works of the Hall of Spring Being Still There, but it fails miserable to tell the readers a beautiful anecdote behind the whole line.

   2) Another domestic drama, in which a clever magistrate establishes the identity of the true mother in a case of disputed custody is "The Circle of Chalk" <灰阑记>.

   5.翻译译例:译例是独立成段的,统一用Example X标识

   In Zhou Shoujuan's translation, we can pick out a lot of examples that to some extent, reflect the influence of Confuciani论文范文, Menci论文范文 and Taoi论文范文. The concrete examples are as follows.

   Example 1:

   Source text: 天性素笃厚,爱兄甚至.(死后之相见; tr.1918:3)

   Target text 1: She was a very pious woman. (the Relation of the Apparition of Mrs. Veal; trans. by Liu Ying in 1936)

   Target text 2: She was a very kind and nice woman.and loved her brother. (trans. by He Hui in 1984))

   译例是汉语词或短语的,先用拼音且为斜体,再用汉字,随后接其英语翻译且用引号.如果需要,将字面意思翻译出来并用括号.但如果,翻译是独立于句子之外的则还要加上括号.如果是他人的翻译,还要标注文献来源,例如下面的Linda 1.

   1) The first Chinese expression I learned was nihao你好 ("hello"; Linda 1).

   2) There is no equivalent of xiu 羞 "to shame".

   3) Take the mythological animal long龙in Chinese, which has often been translated into English as "dragon."

   4) It is, for instance, better to put shuocaocao caocao jiudao说曹操曹操就到 into "speak of the devil and he will appear," rather than " Speak of Cao Cao and Cao Cao will be here right away."

   5) The Chinese equivalent of "dating" is you yuehui 有约会. A more serious kind of relationship is called tan lianai 谈恋爱 (literally "talk romance").

   2017年10月修定,参考文献

   中山大学英语专业论文规范

   上海外国语大学英语专业论文规范

   湘潭大学英语专业论文规范

   《外语教学与研究》格式

  

   PART TWO 写作范本:

  

   惠州学院

   HUIZHOU UNIVERSITY

   毕 业 论 文(设 计)

   中文题目:_________________________________________

  

   英文题目:

  

   姓 名__________________

   学 号__________________

   专业班级__________________

   指导教师__________________

   提交日期__________________

   教务处制

   学位论文原创性声明

   本人郑重声明:所呈交的论文是本人在导师的指导下独立进行研究所取得的研究成果.除了文中特别加以标注引用的内容外,本论文不包含任何其他个人或集体已经发表或撰写的成果作品.对本文的研究做出重要贡献的个论文范文集体,均已在文中以明确方式标明.本人完全意识到本声明的法律后果由本人承担.

   作者签名: 日期: 年 月 日

   摘 要

   隐喻研究归根到底是隐喻机制的研究,它是隐喻研究的核心.两千多年来,隐喻一直被仅仅看作一种修辞手段,一种语言的陪衬,被看作是两种不同事物事先存在的相似性的比较或一个词对另一词的替代,进而形成对隐喻阐述的比较论和替代论.现代学者通过大量研究表明,隐喻不仅仅是一种修辞手段,更重要的是,它是人类的主要认论文范文式.隐喻这一认论文范文式,给人们一种新的视角,创造一种相似.因此,现代学者着重于阐述相似是如何被创造出来的.在众多的隐喻理论中,影响较大的有布莱克和莱科夫的隐喻理论. (大约200字左右)

   关键词:隐喻;搭配;术语

   (中文摘 要的内容和关键词应与英文摘 要相对应,关键词3-5个,词与词之间用分号分开)

   Abstract

   The mechani论文范文 of metaphor is actually the nucleus of the study of metaphor. For more than two thousand years, metaphor was viewed as a device of rhetoric, an attachment to language. In accordance with this perspective, metaphor was a parison between two things that do not belong to the same category or was regarded as one word used to substitute another because there were preexisting similarities between them. As a result of this perspective, two theories took shape: one was the Comparison Theory, the other was the Theory of Substitution. But modern scholars discard the perspective, holding that metaphor is not only a device of rhetoric, to be more important, it is a leading way for human beings to know this world, a way of thinking. (中文摘 要的对应译文)

   Key words: metaphor; collocation; terms

   (注意:关键词3-5个,字体要加粗,词与词之间用分号分开,除专有名词外,其他单词首字母不大写)

   Contents

   摘 要 等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等.i

   Abstract 等等等等等等等等等等等.等等.等等..ii

   I. Introduction等等等等等等等等等等等等...等等..1

   II. A Historical Retrospection of Metaphor等等等等等等...等等...2

   2.1 Aristotelian School: Metaphor—A Device of Rhetoric等等等..等等.2

   2.2 The Platonic School—Language is Metaphorical等等等.等等等. 5

   2.3 The Study of Metaphor from the 20th Century to the Present等等等.等..6

   III. On Similarity等等等等等等等等等等等等等7

   3.1 Similarity: A Fundamental Criterion for the Classification of Metaphor等等..7

   3.2 Similarity and Culture等等等等等等等等等等等.9

   3.3 Similarity and Category等等等等等.等等等等等等10

   3.4 The Relationship Between Similarity and Knowledge等等等等等.13

   IV. On the Mechani论文范文 of Metaphor等等等等等等.等等等...15

   4.1 Black's Interaction Theory等等等等等等等等....................15

   4.1.1 Introduction to the Interaction Theory等等等等等等等...15

   4.1.2 Some Defects of the Interaction Theory等等等等等等等16

   4.2 Lakoffian Conceptual Metaphor Theory等等等等等等等...19

   4.2.1 The Philosophical Basis of Lakoffian Theory等等等等等...19

   4.2.2 Lakoffian Theory on the Mechani论文范文 of Metaphor等等等等等21

   4.2.3 The Deficiencies of Lakoffian Theory in Expounding the Creation of Similarity等等等等. 等等等等等等等等等...26

   4.3 Conceptual Integration Theory等等等等等等等等等.29

   4.3.1 An Introduction to the Conceptual Integration Theory等等等...等....29

   4.3.1.1 Four Mental Spaces等等等.等等等...等等等..29

   4.3.1.2 Three Processes of BT等等等..等等等..等等等..33

   4.3.1.3 Optimality Principles of BT等等.等等等等...等等.34

   4.3.2 The Advantages of BT in Solving the Paradox of the Two Former Theories等等等等等等等等等等等等等...34

   4.3.2.1 The Generic Mental Space等等等等等等.等...等...34

   4.3.2.2 The Blending Space and Emergent Structure等..等等..等...35

   4.3.2.3 The Other Advantages of BT等等等..等等..等等40

   V. Conclusion等等等等等等等等等等.等等等等42

   References等等等等等等等等等..等等等等等45

   Acknowledgements等等等等等等等等等等等等46

   I. Introduction

   The study of metaphor has long been with us and the focus of the study is the mechani论文范文 of metaphor. It is the most significant and indispensable part of the study. For more than two thousand years, the study is carried on mainly from the perspective of rhetoric, viewing metaphor as a device of rhetoric, an embellishment of language. The representative of the theories in this long period is Aristotle's Comparison Theory and Quintilian's Theory of Substitution. Because metaphor is not only a rhetorical phenomenon, but also one of cognition, the interpretation force of these theories is very limited. In 1936, I.A. Richards put forward Interaction Theory. Later Max Black made an elaboration of the work of his. Interaction Theory claims that metaphor is a cognitively irreducible phenomenon that works not at the level of word bination, but much deeper, arising out of the interaction between the conceptual structures underlying the words. But the ones who really turn the study of metaphor to a new page are George Lakoff and Mark Johnson. The mark of this change is the publication of the book named Metaphors We Live By. The theory of Lakoff and Johnson's is Conceptual Metaphor Theory. As these scholars regard metaphor as the creation of similarity, their theories concentrate on how the similarity is created and how the new meaning is produced though their interpretations are not perfect. Recently, another theory appeared—Conceptual Integration Theory or Blending Theory. Comparatively speaking, it is more convincing on the mechani论文范文 of metaphor than the other two.(以下省略,此部分字数最少不少于300字)

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   II. A Historical Retrospection of Metaphor

   2.1 Aristotelian School: Metaphor--A Device of Rhetoric

   Andrew Ortony, one of the most influential writers on metaphor, has pointed out, and there are few who would disagree with him, that it is still the case that "Any serious study of metaphor is almost obliged to start with the works of Aristotle"

   In Poetics, Aristotle expounds the essence, function and the way of explanation of metaphor as three nuclei. He defines metaphor as "the application of an alien name by tran论文范文erence either from genus to species, or from species to genus, or from species to species, or by analogy, that is, proportion" (1997: 21)(出版年:引文页码).(作者姓名在文中已经出现) Then he gives four kinds of metaphor:

   Since 'lying at anchor' is a species of the genus 'lying', one can say 'there lies my ship' (genus-to-species metaphor), since 'ten thousand' is a species of a 'large number', one can say verily ten thousand noble deeds hath Odysseus wrought (species-to-genus metaphor). Since 'to draw away' and 'to cle论文范文e' are each a species of the genus 'taking away', one can say with blade of bronze drew away the life (species-to-species metaphor). And since old age is to life as evening to the day, one can say that old age is the evening of life. (本例为整段引用,即block quotation, 前后空五号字一行 )

   All metaphors, Aristotle believes, fall into at least one of these four categories, although analogy metaphors are the most pleasing. Aristotle also holds that metaphor can make the prosaic style charming, and stresses that it can only be confined to poetry This perspective leads to the later theorists making distinction between poetic language and everyday language. Especially in Chapter 21 and 22 of Poetics, Aristotle states that every word "is either current, or strange, or metaphor, or ornamental, or newly coined, or lengthened, or contracted, or altered" It is obvious that Aristotle classifies metaphors as lying outside normal language use. They are deviant or aberrant forms of discourse. He also holds that metaphor has no cognitive value and is merely an embellishment of language. Also in this chapter of Poetics, he elaborates how metaphors are unusual and discusses the relationship between metaphor and genius, viewing metaphor as a talent of epic poets and tragedians:

   The greatest thing by far is to h论文范文e a mand of metaphor. This alone can not be imported by another; it is the mark of genius—for to make good metaphors implies an eye for resemblances.

   As Hawks writes about Aristotle's account of metaphor:

   It is abundantly clear that, as an entity in itself, metaphor is regarded as a decorative addition to language, to be used in specific ways, and at specific times and places (ibid. 8-9).

  

   In Rhetoric,(书名斜体) Aristotle says that the best metaphors are those that achieve the effect of bringing things vividly before the eyes of the audience. He argues that this effect is "produced by words which refer to things in action". "The best image involves a metaphor" From the above statements, we know that Aristotle views metaphor as a rhetorical device and an embellishment of language. Finally he establishes his theory on metaphor—Comparison Theory. It is the earliest theory in the history of the study of metaphor. Its main gist is:

   1 Metaphors are matters of language and not matters of thought or action. There is no such thing as metaphorical thought or action.

   2 A metaphor of the form "A is B" is a linguistic expression whose meaning is the same as a corresponding linguistic expression of the form "A is like B, in respect X, Y, Z等" "Respects X, Y, Z等" characterize what we h论文范文e called "isolated similarities".

   3 A metaphor can therefore only describe preexisting similarities. It can't create similarities

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   III. On Similarity

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   IV. On the Mechani论文范文 of Metaphor

   等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等..

  

   4.1 Black's Interaction Theory(章内每节标号及标题左起顶格,四号字,加粗,前后空一行为小四号字.如在页首则其前不空行,但其后空行)

   4.1.1 Introduction to Interaction Theory

   Interaction Theory was originated from I. A. Richards' theory. In his definition he says: "In the simplest formulation, when we use a metaphor we h论文范文e two thoughts of different things active together and supported by a single word, or phrase, whose meaning is a resultant of their interaction". The most important in this definition is "two active thoughts interact with each other." He first provided the basic terminology and conceptual framework for discussing metaphor. He argued that metaphor consists of two terms, the tenor, or 论文范文ic, and the vehicle, and the

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   4.3 The Conceptual Integration Theory

   等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等.

   4.3.1 An Introduction to the Conceptual Integration Theory

   Conceptual Integration Theory was proposed by Gilles Fauconnier and Mark Turner等等等等等等等等等等等等等

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   4.3.1.1 Four Mental Spaces

   In BT, the basis unit of cognitive organization is not the domain but the mental spaces, which are a partial and temporary representational structure that speakers construct when thinking or talking about a perceived, imagined, past, present等等等等等等等等等

   等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等

   V. Conclusion

  

   The study of metaphor is, in essence, the study of how metaphor works. It is the nucleus of metaphor study. Modern scholars discard the perspective that metaphor is a device of rhetoric, an attachment to language, and claim that metaphor is of cognition and is omnipresent; it is a way of human thinking. Moreover, they hold that metaphor creates similarity instead of paring two things which are based on the preexisting similarity. Hence, the mechani论文范文 of metaphor is to interpret how similarity is created. Black's theory and Lakoffian theory, due to some defects and deficiencies, are not able to give a clear description of the creation of similarity. They ende论文范文or to expound the appearance of a new structure after a novel metaphor, but they fail to do that and result in "isomorphi论文范文".

   The mechani论文范文 of metaphor is sophisticated. It is a result of various factors. Interacting, projecting and blending constitute the process. It is obvious that BT, on the basis of the two above-mentioned theories, focuses on solving the problem of the "isomorphi论文范文"-structure. To 论文范文oid mitting the same mistake that all the knowledge, the features mapped from the source domain and the structure (论文范文ology) of the target domain are interwoven等.

   等(400words)等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等等

   References

   "参考文献"格式范例

   [1] Adams, Richard P. Faulkner: Myth and Motion. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1968.

   [2] Aiken, Conrad. William Faulkner: The Novel as Form. In Frederick J. Hoffman and Olga W. Vickery. eds. William Faulkner: Three Decades of Critici论文范文. East Lansing: Michigan State UP, 1960.

   [3] Barker, Deborah E., and Ivo Kamps. Much Ado about Nothing: Language and Desire in The Sound and the Fury. Mississippi Quarterly: The Journal of Southern Culture. 46.3 (Summer 1993): 373-93.

   [4] Bleikasten, Andre. Faulkner's As I Lay Dying. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1973.

   [5] Carter, Ronald, ed. Language and Literature: An Introductory Reader in Stylistics. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1982.

   [6]?——. Literary Text and Language Study. London: Edward Arnold, 1982.

   [7] Faulkner, William. Absalom, Absalom! New York: The Modern Library, 1936.

   [8] ?——. The Sound and the Fury. Middlesex: Penguin, 1964.

   [9] He, Gang. Grammaticalization: Construction and slot. Guangzhou: CPrA. 2003 [2017-10-29]. pragmaticschina./grammaticalization.htm.

   [10] Leech, G. N. 1969. A Linguistic Guide to English Poetry. Longman. Rpt in Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 2001.

   [11] Leech, G. N. and Michael H. Short, 1981. Style in Fiction: A Linguistic Introduction to English Fictional Prose. Rpt in Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 2001.

   [12] Peters, M. & Stephen, T. B. Interaction Routines as Cultural Influences upon Language Acquisition. In Schieffelin, B.B. & Ochs, E. eds. Language Socialization Across Cultures. Cambridge: CUP, 1986: 80-96.

   [13] Popping, Roel. Computer-Assisted Text Analysis. London: Sage, 2000.

   [14] Shen, Dan. Stylistics and Translation. Beijing: Peking UP, 1995.

   [15] 管淑红,王雅丽,小说话语的人际意义.《外语与外语教学》,2006.4:10-13.

   [16] 胡壮麟,《功能主义纵横谈》. 北京:外语教学与研究出版社,2000

   [17] 李战子,评价理论:在话语分析中的应用和问题.《外语研究》,2004.5:1-6.

   [18] 刘新民,主题,人物,艺术手法.《名作欣赏》,1997.6:101-105.

   [19] 裘小龙,从《献给爱米丽的玫瑰》中的绿头巾想到的.《读书》,1980:49-52.

   [20] 申丹,有关功能文体学的几点思考.《外国语》,1997.5:1-7.

   [21] 申丹,西方现代文体学百年发展.《外语教学与研究》,2000.1:22-28.

   [22] 申丹,功能文体学再思考.《外语教学与研究》,2002.3:188-193.

   [23] 施少平,一幕耐人寻味的现代悲剧.《求是学刊》,1987:59.

   [24] 汤富华,母语语感涵义与二语语感涵义的区分[EB/OL].(2004-11-15)[2017-08-05].eng.hzu.edu./yugan/.?

   [25] 王振华,《介入:言语互动中的一种评价视角》.博士论文,2003.

   [26] 张德禄,《语言的功能与文体》.北京:高等教育出版社,2005.

  

   Acknowledgements

   I h论文范文e eternal gratitude to等, my tutor, for his inestimable help and valuable instruction, and to Professor 等, for his insightful lectures, which inspire me to pose this dissertation.

   I am greatly indebted to Professor 等 for his allowing me to h论文范文e access to his books pertinent to this dissertation.

   I also thank those who help me in course of the writing and whose names I can't list here one by one.

   - 1 -

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