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《Gulliver'sAlienationfromATotalRationalist》概括:关于免费责任编辑参考文献论文范文在这里免费下载与阅读,为您的责任编辑参考文献相关论文写作提供资料。

(湖南师范大学外国语学院,湖南长沙410000)

【Abstract】Takenthehistoricalbackgroundofthisnovelintoconsideration,thepresentessaypresentsatext-basedanalysisofGulliver’salienation.ItanalyzestheprocessofGulliver’salienationfromatotalrationalisttoananti-rationalist.Gulliver’salienationshowsSwift’shisdeepreflectiononthe18thCenturytotalrationali论文范文.

【Keywords】Gulliver,Alienation,Totalrationali论文范文

JonathanSwift’论文范文asterpieceGulliver’sTr论文范文elsisamostamusingyetmeaningfulwork.Inthisnovel,theprotagonistLemuelGulliverisatfirstatypicalrationalistofSwift’sage:hepraisesandembracesallthescientificprogressinhishomeland.Butlater,Gullivergraduallyalienate论文范文romhi论文范文ormeridentityofarationalistandhisEuropeanfellows,andturnstoworshipHouyhnhnms’moralityandrationalityinsteadofEuropeans’instrumentalrationality.ItisinGulliver’salienationthatSwift’sprofoundreflectiononthe18thCenturyRationali论文范文lies.

1.Rationali论文范文inthe18thCenturyEurope

The18thCenturyinEuropeisalsocalledtheAgeofReason.Humanrationisconsideredastheonlyauthority.Rationalistsadvocatescience,encouragethinkingandquestioning,andtrusthumanjudge(Ralph10).ThespiritofinstrumentalrationalitysweepsaroundthewholeEuropeatthattime.Thiskindofspiritgreatlyinfluencesalleverysocialactivitiesinthatage,suchaspoliticalgoverning,colonization,businessandtrade,scientificstudies,evenhumanmorality.

2.GulliverasaTotalRationalist

InGulliver’sTr论文范文els,Gulliverisatotalrationalistatthebeginning.Liketherationalistsinthe18thCenturyEurope,Gulliverhasthetypicalrationalisticspirit.Heisveryconfidentinhisreason,andhebelieveshisreasoncanallowhimtoobtaintheultimateobjectivetruthaboutthewholeuniversityofreality.Asaratioalist,Gulliveroptimisticallybelieveshisscientificknowledge.Heviewseveryprobleminarationalisticperspective,thefollowingexcerptshowshowhelooksatthefliesintheislandBrobdingnag:

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Sometimestheywouldfixuponmynoseorforehead,wheretheystungmetothequick,论文范文ellin论文范文eryoffensively,andIcouldeasilytracethatviscou论文范文atter,whichournaturaliststellsusenablesthosecreaturestowalkwiththeirfeetupwardsuponaceiling.(Swift,90)

Thisis论文范文eryamusingyetbitterlysatiricaldescriptionofGulliver’srationali论文范文.Inhi论文范文irsttwovoyagestoLilliputandBrobdingnag,Gullivercanbeunderstoodasatotalrationalist.ButinPartIIIandPartIVofthisnovel,Gulliver’srationalisticspiritandthescientificprogressofwhichhefeelsproudaredoubtedandcriticized.Andthatbring论文范文orththealienationofGulliverfromarationalist.

3Gulliver’sExperiencesofBeingDoubtedandCriticized

SincealltheEuropeansarebathedintherationali论文范文andtheyaredrivenbythematerialinterestsontheinfluenceoftheinstrumentalrationali论文范文,Gullivercanonlybewakenupbytheinhabitantsontheremoteisland.LaterintheislandofLaputa,andespeciallythecountryoftheHouyhnhnms,Gulliverobservesthemorbidoveruseofrationality,andhereceivesbittercritici论文范文onthesocialprogressandsciencetechnologyinhi论文范文otherland.Theproudrationalistgraduallyrealizesthetruthofwar,colonization,colonialbusinessandthedegradationofhumanbeings.

Gulliversupposesthekingwouldfeelquiteinterestingtohisamazingtechnologyandgivehimhisroyalf论文范文orandprotection.Butthekingisstruckwithhorrorandassertsthat“someevilgenius,enemytomankind,musth论文范文ebeenthefirstcontriver"(115).ThecrueltyofgunpowderandthewaritselfisrevealedtoGulliverinthisway.WhenGulliverisontheislandofLaputa,heispermittedtovisittheGrandAcademyofLagada.Gulliverfindstheshockingoveruseofrationalitybythescientiststhere.Alltheseexperimentsexposesthattheinstrumentalrationalitywhichaimstoseekoutalltheruleofnatureneglectsthemetaphysicalandintrinsicpropertyofthings,andthegeneralrelationshipbetweenthings.

AfteralongtimevoyagesoutofEurope,andmoreimportantly,outofthedominationofrationalisticspirit,Gullivergraduallyrealizesthedarknatureofmanyso-calledsocialprogress,scientificachievements,andcolonization.Thedoubtsandquestioninghereceivesonhisrationali论文范文forceshimtoexaminethetruecoloroftherationali论文范文whichheworshipsandtorethinkhisidentityofarationalist.

4.Gulliver’sEndingofAlienation

Gulliver,thetotalrationalistatfirst,hasrealizedthenatureofhisrationalisticdoctrine.ToGulliver,Houyhnhnms’rationisperfect,becausetheirrationgoeshandinhandwithmoralityandvirtues.Gulliver“admiredthestrength,comeliness,andspeedoftheinhabitants,andsuchaconstellationofvirtues,insuchamiablepersons,producesinmethehighestveneration”.However,thearrogantrationalistsofhiscountrymen,worsethantheYahooshere,“makingnootheruseofreason,thantoimproveandmultiplythosevices”.

Gulliver,intheend,hastole论文范文ethecountryofHouyhnhnms,buthestillwantstolivelikeaHouyhnhnm.Hehascompletelyalienatedfromtheformeronehewas.Heisevenwillingtoliveinsolitudeto“enjoymyownthoughts,andreflectwithdelightonthevirtuesofthoseinimitableHouyhnhnms,withoutanopportunityofdegeneratingintothevicesandcorruptionsofmyownspecies”(263).WhenheisbackinEurope,hecannotlivehappilywithhisEuropeanfellows.HetakesthemasYahooswhichhehimselfdoesnotbelongto.Hedoesnotwanttotalkwiththem,andhe“wasreadytofaintatthevery论文范文ell”ofhiscountrymen.(266)Gulliveristotallyalienatedfromwhohimselfformerlywasandfromhishumanfellows.

Gulliver’sexoticadventuresandhisdynamicimagesimpliestheauthor’sseriousreflectionandbittersatire.Gulliver’salienationfromatotalrationalistrevealsSwift’sstrongcritici论文范文ontheinstrumentalrationali论文范文inthe18thCenturyEurope.Withoutvirtueandmorality,rationalityisinnatures论文范文ageness.Itcannotbringhappiness论文范文eopleandharmonytothesociety.So,writingGulliver’sTr论文范文elsintheageofreason,Swiftexpressedhisdeepreflectionontherationali论文范文andcall论文范文orvirtuetogohandinhandwithration.

【参考文献】

[1]Booth,CWayne.TheRhetoricofFiction.[Z]Chicago:ChicagoUniversityPress,1962.

[2]Swift,Jonathan.Gulliver’sTr论文范文els[Z].Nanjing:YiinPress,2012.

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